Book chapter co-authored by Kaan Varnalı


Managing Social Media Communications at Garanti Bank, co-authored by Kaan Varnalı (Assoc. Prof. at BİLGİ Faculty of Communication) is published within the book Strategic Marketing Cases in Emerging Markets, edited by Atanu Adhikari and Sanjit Kumar Roy. The book is published by Springer.


This case study provides the background for creative thinking on social media marketing. It involves issues such as content marketing, customer care in social media, converting traffic in social media channels into product leads, brand engagement in social media, and assessment of interaction rates. What is expected from the students is to both analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of Garanti Bank’s approach in social media management in conveying brands’ core values and generating leads on social media, and develop suggestions on how the brand may increase its interaction rate in line with its strategic targets.

Book chapter co-authored by Kaan Varnalı and Vehbi Görgülü

“Determinants of Brand Recall in Social Networking Sites”, co-authored by Kaan Varnalı (Assoc. Prof. at BİLGİ Faculty of Communication, on the left) and Vehbi Görgülü (Asst. Prof. at BİLGİ Faculty of Communication) is published within the book Strategic Uses of Social Media for Improved Customer Retention, edited by  Wafaa Al-Rabayah (Independent Researcher, Jordan), Rawan Khasawneh (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan), Rasha Abu-shamaa (Yarmouk University, Jordan) and Izzat Alsmadi (Boise State University, USA). The book is published by IGI Global.


This research aims to contribute to the understanding of how brand impressions in social networking sites influence brand recall. Further, the relationship between the built-in metrics offered by social networking sites and brand recall are also examined to assess the validity of these metrics as measures of advertising effectiveness. Results indicate a positive relationship between brand recall and self-brand congruence, tie-strength with, trust toward, and perceived popularity of the profile associated with the post, and clicking a link embedded in the post / ad in which the brand appears. On the other hand, there is not a significant difference between the levels of brand involvement, homophily with the profile associated with the post / ad, like-count, and four types of built-in user-interaction options including liking, sharing, posting a comment and tagging among the brands that were successfully retrieved from the memory and those were not.

Article co-authored by Kaan Varnali

kaan-varnalı-e1357906647643.jpgAn asymmetric configural model approach for understanding complainer emotions and loyalty“, co-authored by Kaan Varnali, Ph.D. (Associate Professor of Marketing at ifbilgi; Program Director of markaokuluis published by the SSCI-indexed Journal of Business Research:

“Few works emphasize the emotional nature of customer complaint behavior, and those that do so focus largely on negativity. The idea that specific emotions might lead to idiosyncratic reactions and that in some cases positive emotions may also be aroused during the complaint experience has been largely neglected. The study explores this issue by identifying specific emotions experienced by complainers and then relating them to resulting complainer loyalty levels, separately under conditions where the outcomes of the complaint process is evaluated favorably versus unfavorably. Complaint texts posted on a well-known website are content analyzed and six types of emotions (hopeful, puzzled, recessive, befooled, offended, and hypersensitive), three types of texting styles (general, specific, and threatening), and five types of complainer concerns (financial, technical, psychological, social, and physical) are identified via content analyses. Configural analyses reveal 33 combination paths of these antecedent conditions for complainer loyalty and 65 different combinations for disloyalty. Results suggest that the specific emotions approach potentially explains more about complaining customer behavior compared to the more general valence-based approach, and that post-complaint loyalty depends considerably on complainer emotions, concerns, and texting styles experienced and expressed during the complaint process.”

Article co-authored by Kaan Varnalı

How do firms benefit from customer complaints?”, co-authored by Kaan Varnalı, Ph.D. (Associate Professor of Marketing; Program Director of markaokulu) is published in SSCI-indexed journal, Journal of Business Research. The abstract of the research article is as follows:

“The study explores the effects of two sets of factors relating to complaint management on firm performance, namely, (1) customer response factors and (2) organizational learning factors, thereby integrating organizational learning into the conceptualization of complaint management. Symmetric testing using hierarchical regression analysis of data obtained from complainants and firm managers revealed the joint effects of the two main paths on firm performance, independently from one another. Learning from complaints is shown to influence both short- and long-term firm-level performance measures positively. However, contrary to expectations, complainants’ and managers’ perceptions of fairness in the complaint handling processes of firms are found to (1) be nonrelated to short-term firm performances and (2) influence long-term performance expectancies negatively. Asymmetric analyses involving contrarian cases and further utilizing the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) disclosed distinct sets of antecedents that are sufficient for explaining short- and long-term firm performance.”

New article by Gresi Sanje and Kaan Varnalı

online-educational-resourcesA new article by Gresi Sanje, PhD and Kaan Varnalı, PhD, titled “The Effects of Teaching Style and Internet Self-Efficacy on Instructors’ Attitudes toward Online Education in Higher Education” is published by the American International Journal of Contemporary Research:

“The aim of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the attitudes toward online education, which can be helpful in projecting the acceptance of online education by instructors. The study draws on two theoretical accounts, teaching styles and Internet self-efficacy, to determine the predictors of instructors’ attitudes toward online education. The results of the study indicate that the delegator teaching style has a positive relationship, whereas the expert teaching style has a negative relationship, with attitudes toward online education. Internet self-efficacy and the delegator teaching style predict attitudes toward online education. Additionally, prior experience with online education correlates positively with attitudes toward online education”.

New article by Yonca Aslanbay and Kaan Varnali: A Future of “Happiness”: Can Markets Be Co-evolved?


A Future of “Happiness”: Can Markets Be Co-evolved?“, the new article by Yonca Aslanbay, Ph.D. and Kaan Varnali, Ph.D. is published by the SSCI-indexed journal Society:

“The downturn of the markets in the recent global economic crisis points to a need to question the current dynamics of the market system, a decade after the turn of the millennium. The inequalities with regard to the consumption of resources across world markets, the declared low satisfaction
rates over what is offered in the marketplace, and the increasing skepticism with marketing practices are all more pronounced than ever. It is becoming evident that consumer marketing fails in constructing a happier society. Consumers, producers, and governments as the three main market stakeholders, share responsibility for the undesired consequences. This article provides a critical perspective on the contemporary paradigm that dominates marketing thought in relation to the central role and the evolving meaning of consumption in the market economy that is favored by most governments. The core position of the article is that determining happiness as the ultimate end requires a shift to a new societal orientation for all stakeholders of the market system.”

New article by Kaan Varnali and Vehbi Gorgulu on expressive political participation in Twitter: the case of #occupygezi

twitter-467x315A new article authored by Kaan Varnali, Ph.D. (Department of Communication Management) and Vehbi Gorgulu, M.A. (Department of Communication Management), titled ‘A social influence perspective on expressive political participation in Twitter: the case of #OccupyGezi’ is published by the SSCI-indexed communication science journal, Information, Communication and Society:

“The aim of this research is to contribute to the growing literature on online political participation by seeking a better understanding of the social determinants of action that drive expressive political participation in Twitter. Our results revealed that social influence variables explain a significant portion of variance in online political participation independently from the antecedents identified by prior literature. While social identity and group norms were significantly related with political expressive participation in Twitter, subjective norms had no significant effect. Findings are discussed within the scope of Gezi Park protests and future research directions are suggested.”