Book chapter co-authored by Sayan, Görgülü, Erhart and Aslanbay


“A Social Influence Perspective on Uses of Online Football Forums: The Case with Turkish Football Fans”, co-authored by Anıl Sayan (Research Asst. at BİLGİ Faculty of Communication), Vehbi Görgülü (Asst. Prof. at BİLGİ Faculty of Communication), Itır Erhart (Assoc. Prof. at BİLGİ Faculty of Communication) and Yonca Aslanbay (Prof. at BİLGİ Faculty of Communication) is published within the book Online Communities as Agents of Change and Social Movements, edited by Steve Gordon (Professor at Babson College, USA). The book is published by IGI Global.


This study aims to shed light on Turkish football forum users on the Internet from a social identity and uses and gratifications (U&G) perspective in order to reveal joint intentions among football fans online. The research model of the current study applies a uses and gratifications approach to examine whether fan motivations while using online football forums determine we-intentions among forum members. Social influence processes are also essential in the context of research on online forums, since they determine changes in attitudes and actions produced by the virtual social influence that may occur at different levels. Findings reveal uses and gratifications of football forum participation as maintaining interpersonal interconnectivity, generating entertainment and purposive value along with affective social identity construct determined we-intention among forum users.

Itır Erhart joins reseach team to study one of Europe’s most contentious public protests

YmSPKCPZ.jpegThe University of Brighton has won a £250,000 grant to study one of Europe’s most contentious public protests and examine how social media has opened up a new avenues to voice opposition.
The project, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, will last 16 months and will be led by Dr McGarry with Professor Catherine Moriarty, Professor of Art and Design History, and Dr Olu Jenzen, Senior Lecturer, acting as co-investigators. Dr Umut Korkut from Glasgow Caledonian University and Dr Itır Erhart from Bilgi University, Istanbul, make up the project team (News source).

Book chapter by Itır Erhart

41ud5Th0hbL._SX332_BO1,204,203,200_“Women, Islamic feminism and children-only soccer in Erdoğan’s Turkey: empowerment or discrimination” authored by Itır Erhart (BİLGİ Media School, Ph.D) is published within the book, Sport in Islam and in Muslim CommunitiesThe book, edited by Alberto Testa and Mahfoud Amara, is published by Routledge within its Research in Sport, Culture and Society series:

“As Islam’s visibility in global society increases, Muslim populations grow, and Muslim countries compete to take up positions at the heart of global sport, the interplay between sport and Islam becomes ever more illuminating. Sport in Islam and in Muslim Communities is the first book to analyse this relationship through a pluralist lens, exploring the questions it raises about contemporary Islam, globalisation, and the challenges faced by (in particular young) Muslims in negotiating their place in global society.

With contributions from Muslim and non-Muslim authors, the book approaches an array of contemporary issues, from the role of sport in gender, youth and political identities in Islam and Muslim societies to sport policy in Muslim countries, sport’s role among Muslim minorities and sport marketing’s relationship to Muslim cultures.

Drawing on sociology, anthropology, political science, Islamic studies and sport studies, Sport in Islam and in Muslim Communities not only examines the significance of sport in Islam, but helps to draw wider conclusions on religious identity in sporting settings and the interplay between sport, gender, political ideology and consumer culture.”

Article co-authored by Itır Erhart

Itır Erhart, Ph.D. (BİLGİ Media School) is the co-author of the article titled “Toward postheroic leadership: A case study of Gezi’s collaborating multiple leaders”, published in the SSCI indexed journal Leadership. The article can be accessed here:

“This article explores how the Gezi Park protests in Istanbul, Turkey, exemplify the changing character of contemporary social movements, where teamwork and collaboration are supported and the ability to empower, support, and engage others is emphasized. We argue that the role of leadership in social movements in general and in the Turkish Gezi context specifically goes beyond the creation of traditional leaders. This new form of leadership is driven by the possibilities opened up by other democratic and collaborative social movements and also social networking sites. We look at how a horizontal, postheroic leadership message was conveyed via the posters, t-shirts, and chants used by the protestors during the Gezi Park protests, with analysis supported by interviews conducted with protesters.”

Book chapter co-authored by Itır Erhart

UnknownItır Erhart, Ph.D. (BİLGİ Media School) authored the chapter “Mr. Incredible, Man of Action, Man of Power: What If He Loses It All?” with Hande Eslen Ziya (Glasgow Caledonian University) for the book Aging Heroes: Growing Old in Popular Culture edited by Norma Jones and Bob Batchelor. The book is published by Rowman & Littlefield and can be obtained here

“In Aging Heroes: Growing Old in Popular Culture, Norma Jones and Bob Batchelor present a collection of essays that address the increasing presence of characters that simultaneously manifest and challenge the accepted stereotypes of aging. The contributors to this volume explore representations in television programs, comic books, theater, and other forms of media. The chapters include examinations of aging male and female actors who take on leading roles in such movies as Gran Torino, Grudge Match,Escape Plan, Space Cowboys, Taken, and The Big Lebowski as well as TheExpendables, Red, and X-Men franchises. Other chapters address perceptions of masculinity, sexuality, gender, and race as manifested by such cultural icons as Superman, Wonder Woman, Danny Trejo, Helen Mirren, Betty White, Liberace, and Tyler Perry’s Madea.

With multi-disciplinary and accessible essays that encompass the expanding spectrum of aging and related stereotypes, this book offers a broader range of new ways to understand, perceive, and think about aging. Aging Heroes will be of interest to scholars of film, television, gender studies, women’s studies, sociology, aging studies, and media studies, as well as to general readers.”

New book chapter by Itır Erhart and Hande Eslen-Ziya

1442231475Itir Erhart‘s (Ph.D., Media School) collaborative article with Hande Eslen-Ziya, titled “Janissary: an Orientalist Heroine or a Role Model for Muslim Women?” is published within the edited book (Eds. Maja Bajac-Carter, Norma Jones and Bob Batchelor), “Heroines of Comic Books and Literature: Portrayal in Popular Culture”, published by the Rowman & Littlefield:

“Despite the growing importance of heroines across literary culture—and sales figures that demonstrate both young adult and adult females are reading about heroines in droves, particularly in graphic novels, comic books, and YA literature—few scholarly collections have examined the complex relationships between the representations of heroines and the changing societal roles for both women and men.

In Heroines of Comic Books and Literature: Portrayals in Popular Culture, editors Maja Bajac-Carter, Norma Jones, and Bob Batchelor have selected essays by award-winning contributors that offer a variety of perspectives on the representations of heroines in today’s society. Focused on printed media, this collection looks at heroic women depicted in literature, graphic novels, manga, and comic books. Addressing heroines from such sources as the Marvel and DC comic universes, manga, and the Twilight novels, contributors go beyond the account of women as mothers, wives, warriors, goddesses, and damsels in distress.

These engaging and important essays situate heroines within culture, revealing them as tough and self-sufficient females who often break the bounds of gender expectations in places readers may not expect. Analyzing how women are and have been represented in print, this companion volume to Heroines of Film and Television will appeal to scholars of literature, rhetoric, and media as well as to broader audiences that are interested in portrayals of women in popular culture.”

New article by Itır Erhart on the politicisation of football in Turkey during the second half of 2013

ijhs300A new article by Itır Erhart, Ph.D. (Media School), titled “United in Protest: From ‘Living and Dying With Our Colours’ to ‘Let All The Colours of the World Unite'” is published by the SSCI indexed journal, International Journal of the History of Sport:

“Istanbul’s ‘Big Three’ football clubs, Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray, dominate the Turkish Super League. The matches between these fiercely rival teams, also known as ‘derbies’, are often intense and culminate in the eruption of violence, which has even been fatal on occasion. To many people’s surprise, the anti-government protests which were sparked by outrage over police action against environmental protestors in May 2013 brought these eternal rivals together. Thousands of Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray supporters marched arm-in-arm to Taksim Square and demanded justice and freedom. Out of this solidarity is born Istanbul United, a seemingly new fan group with a new logo that combines the three rival logos. Çarşı, the legendary fan group of Beşiktaş, also played an important role in the protests and received the support of all football fans as well. This paper will focus on the politicisation of football in Turkey during the second half of 2013. By looking at both the political role of football fans of the ‘Big Three’ during and after the Gezi protests, and the ways in which mutual respect and solidarity is born among diverse protesters, this paper discusses the possibilities of translating this positive genre to a peaceful spectatorship in Turkish football.”